• In our earlier post we discussed about gingivitis in which the inflammation is limited to the gums surrounding the teeth. It doesn’t affect the tissues and bone surrounding the teeth. If proper care is taken, gingivitis is reversible.
  • When the inflammation extends to involve the bone and tissues holding the tooth, it causes an irreversible damage and it is now called periodontitis. Pockets develop between the gum and the bone and it traps food and bacteria.
  • Proper care can prevent further damage.
  • When proper care is not taken the bone and tissues undergoes severe damage and the teeth begins to shift and becomes loose. It is now called advanced periodontitis.
  • Even aggressive dental treatment may not save the affected teeth at this stage.


Poor Oral Hygiene

  1. Smoking: Smokers are twice at risk to developing periodontal diseases than non smokers according to CDC.
  2. Smoking also affects host immune system decreasing body’s defense against gum infections.


  1. Age: Older people are at increased risk of getting periodontal problems than you get people.
  2. Heredity: Inheritance of susceptibility to gum diseases from parents.
  3. Stress: Stress decreases body’s immune defenses against gum diseases.
  4. Some Medications: Antidepressants, heart medications, oral contraceptives are linked with gum problems.
  5. Hormones: Hormonal variations that occur during puberty, pregnancy, menopause or taking contraceptives impairs body’s defenses against bacterial infections.
  6. Poor Nutrition and Obesity: Proper nutrition causes failure of immune system to fight against infections.
  7. Grinding / Clenching Teeth: It causes excessive pressure on teeth supporting tissues causing their destruction.


  • Red, Puffy Gums.
  • Gums that feel tender on touch.
  • Pain while chewing food.
  • Bleeding gums while brushing, flossing, or chewing hard food.
  • Gums that are pulling away or receding from the teeth causing teeth to look longer than before.
  • Loose teeth.
  • Shifting teeth, gaps between teeth that did not exist before.
  • pus coming from pockets between gums and teeth.
  • Sores in the mouth.
  • Persistent bad breath.
  • A change in the bite.


  • Prevention is better than cure!
  • Periodontal problems are easily prevented by maintaining adequate oral hygiene.
  • Your dentist may suggest a deep cleaning in which your gums are anesthetized and your teeth are scaled and planed.
  • Some cases need a Flap surgery: where the gums are separated from the teeth and then the teeth are cleaned.
  • Some other cases may need soft or hard tissue grafts.
  • If the teeth has lost most of its bone support your dentist may advise getting them extracted and replaced with ”Fake Teeth”.
  • See our post of replacement option for missing for further knowledge on that.